Types of Fish Diseases

Description: The fish disease is the aquaculture industry’s biggest enemy. It causes low fish quality that adversely impacts its price. Find out about types of fish diseases below.



The fish disease is an area that is not yet thoroughly comprehended even though the study about them is growing. Furthermore, there are only a few drugs available to treat fish disease. For that reason, understanding types of fish diseases can help farmers make an informed decision on how to manage better and care for the health of the farmed fish.
Many factors contribute to fish diseases. They can either affect the fish directly or make the fish more susceptible to diseases. Generally, fish diseases are caused by three main things: improper feeding, exposure to toxic condition, and pathogen infections.

Improper Feeding
Improper feeding refers to nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency. Among some of the most important nutrients for fish growth is vitamins, minerals, amino acid, lipids, protein, carbohydrate and essential fatty acid.
The lack of the abovementioned nutrients may result in malnutrition and disease susceptibility. As a result, fish cannot cope with the attacks of disease-causing agents.
On the contrary, excessive nutrients can also be harmful, for it may lead to nutrient loss and water pollution. This, in turn, can change the water chemistry and pose health risks to the entire fish population. Also, uneaten fish food and fish wastes can pollute the water, which affects the well-being and growth of the fish.

Exposure to Toxic Condition
The toxic condition here refers to human-made toxic substances such as antibiotics and insecticide. The insecticide is a kind of pesticide commonly used by farmers to control the expansion of pests such as insects, aquatic snails, weeds, and plant diseases.
Aside from its helpful property to control pests, commonly used insecticides such as nicotinoids, carbamate, chlorinated hydrocarbons and pyrethroids also pose its own danger to the farmed fish. Overexposure to insecticides is not only harmful to the farmed fish but also to humans who consume them.
Therefore, a careful selection of insecticides along with the combination of other pest control measures can prevent water pollution and the loss of the farmed fish.

Pathogen Infection
Pathogen infection can be sourced from viruses, bacteria, fungi, helminth, protozoan, and crustacean. Below is the summary of each infection and its recommended treatment.

Cluster of  The Infection : Protozoan  Disease
Name of the Disease : Ichthyophthiriasis  (ICH)
Disease Agent : Ichthyophthirius multifilis
Symptoms : white cysts on the skin, gill and fins
Treatment : Dip in 2% salt solution for 7 days

Cluster of  The Infection : Fungal  Disease
Name of the Disease : Saprolegniasis
Disease Agent : Saprolegnia  parasitica
Symptoms : Spoiled eggs
Treatment : Good water quality, circulation, good stocking density

Cluster of  The Infection : Bacterial Disease
Name of the Disease : Fin Rot Disease
Disease Agent : Pseudomonas fluorescens
Symptoms : White line on the margin of the fin
Treatment : Dip in 1:3,000 Solution of copper sulphate

Cluster of  The Infection : Viral Disease
Name of the Disease : Spring Viremia
Disease Agent : Rhabdovirus carpio 
Symptoms : Bleeding from scales, fluid accumulation in the body,  inflammation of  alimentary canal
Treatment : Preventive and hygiene measures


Sources:
http://www.fao.org/tempref/FI/CDrom/FAO_Training/FAO_Training/General/x6709e/x6709e15.htm

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270214035_Overviews_of_the_treatment_and_control_of_common_fish_diseases

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272575872_Pesticides_Toxicity_in_Fish_with_Particular_Reference_to_Insecticides

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330000115_Nutritional_Diseases_of_Fish_in_Aquaculture_and_Their_Management_A_Review

https://thefishsite.com/disease-guide/spring-viraemia-of-carp








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